Weeds to Your Health

first_imgWhy traverse the rain forests for miracle drugs, EurekAlert asks, when the weeds we yank out of our gardens may hold promise for curing a host of common health woes.  John Richard Stepp (University of Florida) claims that fast-growing, herbaceous field plants are more likely to hold useful substances than those deep in jungles.  Indigenous Americans tended to gather more medicinal plants from the fields than the forests.  Though weeds constitute only 3% of plant species, they make up a third of the plants used in pharmaceuticals, he discovered.    Stepp also worked among indigenous peoples and found they had considerable knowledge about their native plants.  In Chiapas, he found that “Mayan residents use weeds for all sorts of day-to-day illnesses, such as common colds, upset stomachs, skin rashes, and aches and sprains.”  He talked with 4- and 5-year old Mayan children who could name 100 local plants.  “An American kid might be able to name 100 Pokemon characters, but if you ask him the names of three plants, he would probably have a real hard time,” he remarked.    Stepp and other botanists feel there is a veritable living pharmacy right outside the door and along trailsides.  This overlooked treasury is readily available, costs nothing, and is often more effective than synthetic drugs.  But heed their caution: “Americans may be able to get similar benefits from weeds as do people in developing countries, although he warns that people shouldn’t experiment on their own.”How many native plants in your neighborhood can you name, and how many do you know how to use?  Teaching your children about local native plants is much more profitable than letting them waste time watching Pokemon or whatever the latest fad on TV.  For today’s jaded youth, it’s a pretty cool discovery that it’s possible to reach down and pick a wild plant to eat, use another as a natural sunscreen or insect repellant, and find one to make soap or rope.  You must exercise great caution, however, since there are poisons and irritants to avoid (remember the joke about poison ivy?  It’s an “all-natural herb that does wonders to your skin.”)  Find a knowledgeable teacher, preferably part Indian guide and part PhD botanist, and use a reliable book on wild plants.  Be extra wary of mushrooms, since even experts can confuse edible ones with poisonous look-alikes.  But you never know; learning how to use wild plants could save your life some day.  Camps, recreation centers and parks should incorporate plant lore into their activities.    The study of native plants also provides an opportunity for research labs to apply good scientific method, employing carefully controlled experiments, to make discoveries for the benefit of mankind – like science used to be done.  It requires no Darwinian storytelling, either, weed reckon.(Visited 10 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

ATP Synthase: Another Unexpected Case of Fine Tuning

first_imgATP synthase, the miniature rotary motor that powers our cells, has been a subject of great interest since the elucidation of its rotary function won three scientists a Nobel prize in 1997.  As an example of a precision-crafted, true electric rotary motor in living systems (another being the larger bacterial flagellum), it also provides a classic case study in intelligent design vs. evolution.  It has been the subject of frequent updates in these pages (start at 02/13/2004 and work backwards).  Now, another discovery about this ATP-synthesizing engine has revealed a deeper level of fine tuning.  Japanese scientists publishing in PNAS1 found a precision coupling between two components that was unexpected, yet apparently essential.    For review, recall that ATP synthase has two functional domains, named F0 and F1.  The F1 part that actually synthesizes ATP from ADP + P is now fairly well understood.  It is composed of three pairs of lobes that spring-load ATP with every 120o turn of the camshaft, each pair of lobes either loading, catalyzing or ejecting an ATP molecule.  The F0 domain, however, has been harder to study.  Scientists knew it looks like a carousel of identical proteins, labeled c subunits.  Linked to it is a camshaft, named the gamma subunit, that drives the synthesis of ATP in F1.  Scientists knew the F0 carousel runs on protons delivered by a gumball-like mechanism named the a subunit (see 12/22/2003 headline).  But up till now, they were not sure how many c subunits comprised the carousel – or even if the number mattered.  Some studies had hinted that the F0 motor contained anywhere from 8 to 13 c subunits, depending on the species.  Now, the team of Mitome et al. found the answer: it is 10, and it must be 10 and only 10.  Other numbers don’t work.  That’s strange.  It means that F0 needs 10 protons per revolution, but F1 produces 3 ATP per revolution.  The ratio 10:3 is not an integer.  How can that be?    The scientists arrived at the number 10 by customizing F0 rings with fixed numbers of c subunits, 2 through 14.  Then they linked them to the F1 domains and watched how much ATP was synthesized.  Results were obtained for only c=2, 5, and 10, which is interesting, considering that 2 and 5 are factors of 10.  The c=2 and c=5 cases produced a little ATP, and c=10 produced the maximum.  All the other numbers produced none.  The team deduced, therefore, that 10 (or one of its factors) is essential to match the proton-loading mechanism of the a subunit.    The scientists also measured the proton flow through their custom carousels when disengaged from F1 and found, again, that 10 was the only number that worked.  Without 10 c subunits, no protons flowed.  Divide a circle of 360o by 10, and you get a 36o angle per c subunit during a complete revolution of the F0 motor.  The F1 domain, by contrast, produces ATP for each 120o turn, or 3 ATP per complete revolution.  The scientists seemed surprised that the proton-ATP ratio, “one of the most important parameters in bioenergetics,” is not an integer.  It’s as if three protons are sufficient to generate an ATP sometimes and four other times, because one cannot have a third of a proton.  Wouldn’t it be more logical if the number of c subunits was a multiple of three, say 6, 9, or 12?  With c=9, for instance, the camshaft angle would regularly line up with the F1 lobes every 3 protons, yielding one ATP every time, nice and neat.  The fact that it does not means that the coupling between F0 and F1 is not strict, as with toothed gears, but “permissive” – as if the two domains rotate according to their own structural needs, and are coupled together by a adaptor mechanism that has some degree of freedom to either twist or slip.    The scientists ruled out slippage.  They knew that the camshaft can only produce an ATP in the F1 domain when it is lined up perfectly at the 120o steps.  Instead, they found that there is enough elastic flexibility in the camshaft to permit twist up to 40o during its rotation.  This flexibility allows the two domains to work separately, each according to its optimum configuration, with the twisting camshaft able to rock back and forth a little to give the F1 lobes time to complete their work.  In scientific lingo, “The flexibility of gamma allows both the F0-gamma and F1-gamma interfaces at the free-energy minima to stay in conformations adequate for the proton transport in F0 and the catalysis in F1 despite the step-size mismatch, providing sufficient time for those events to take place.”    One more thing.  There isn’t much tolerance for error in this system.  The team found that a single point mutation at a spot named E56 in the c subunit was enough to quench all proton flow and all ATP synthesis: “This result provides evidence that each of all 10 E56 in the c-ring is indispensable.”  Also, the quantity of 10 subunits in the c-ring is critical, because 8, 9, 11, 12 and other numbers did not fit the gumball proton-delivery system of the a subunit: “Thus, the proton transport through F0 requires very strict arrangement of contact surface between F0-a and F0-c in the F0 assembly and even a rotary displacement as tiny as 3.3o (360o / 10 – 360o / 11) seems to be enough to disable a proton transfer between them.”    The team made their measurements on ATP synthase motors from a species of thermophilic (heat-loving) bacteria.  They feel they have found a coupling strategy in living systems that could demonstrate a general principle: “Here, we report the permissive nature of the coupling between proton transport and ATP synthesis of F0-F1, but such nature of the coupling can be general among other biological motor systems to connect critical well tuned microscopic events in the large domain motions.”1Mitome et al., “Thermophilic ATP synthase has a decamer c-ring: Indication of noninteger 10:3 H+/ATP ratio and permissive elastic coupling,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0403545101, published online 8/09/04.This discovery reveals a deeper level of design even more difficult to explain by evolution.  (As expected, these authors make no reference to evolution in their paper.)  A simple, easy-to-fathom machine would use the integer ratio; 3 protons yields one ATP.  The 10:3 ratio, puzzling at first, actually shows superior engineering.  It enables two disparate components with different operational requirements to be coupled together for the maximum efficiency of each.  In software, it would be like the driver that allows a device to work with any operating system.  In hardware, it would be like a tractor with a power-takeoff adapter that allows the engine to operate an attachment running at a different RPM.      ATP synthase is made up of two finely tuned domains, F0 and F1, that operate under their own stringent requirements for function, but are useless without one another.  Why would the F0 c-ring carousel evolve by itself, if it had no function vital to the cell?  And how could the F1 system of six lobes, exquisitely-crafted for the synthesis of ATP, operate without an electrical motor to turn the camshaft?  The camshaft itself is a perfectly-designed component, with just the right amount of elastic flexibility, to couple the two very different domains.  Add to that the a subunit that feeds the protons at just the right rate and matches them to the appropriate active site on each c subunit, and the epsilon subunit that anchors the motor to the membrane, and you have an irreducibly complex system of irreducibly complex systems.  The fact that this whole composite machine works at near 100% efficiency is proof of product, a contrivance that virtually shouts “made by intelligent design.”(Visited 42 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

A Decade Of iTunes: Transforming Apple Was Only The Beginning

first_imgWhat it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Tags:#Apple#iPhone#iTunes In my day, boys and girls, we downloaded songs onto our desktop computer. For free. Often illegally. Then we burned them onto CDs late into the night.iTunes changed all that. iTunes required that we actually pay for our music. It corralled us into accepting copyright-restricted digital content, while doing its best to force us onto pricey Apple hardware. It foolishly mashed together audio library management tools with a music download service with online payments and computer/mobile device synching – only to somehow grow even more bloated as the years went by. Yet here it is, ten years later, and iTunes towers above all its competitors.No surprise, then, that Apple is formally celebrating “A Decade of iTunes” with an interactive timeline that is equal parts sales promotion and rare look back. Related Posts Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement With the possible exception of Windows Vista, probably no software application from a large company has incurred such vigorous and ongoing public scorn as iTunes. Unlike Vista, however, iTunes continues to grow, evolve and continue its semi-secret though highly successful mission of transforming Apple from anemic, also-ran PC maker to its current position as the world’s largest technology and media company.It was (technically) on April 28, 2003, when Apple launched the iTunes Music Store. The store contained 200,000 songs, all priced at $.99 each. On that same day, Apple announced its third-generation iPod, weighing less than “two CDs” and able to hold 7,500 songs. From those meager beginnings, content delivery, the music, film and software industries – and Apple’s fortunes – were all soon to be profoundly changed.Ten years ago, Apple’s share price was $6.66. Today it hovers around $400 (down from more than $700, but still). Recall, if you can, the many Borders and Blockbuster Video stores that dotted the American landscape. iTunes essentially enabled us to buy easily digital content for the first time, and taught us that digital content could be worth paying for.iTunes Begat iPhoneiTunes helped make Apple relevant once again. It enabled the expansion of Steve Jobs’ “digital hub” strategy, guiding Apple from failing computer maker to consumer electronics behemoth. That much is generally accepted. Just as importantly, however, iTunes enabled the iPhone. The single biggest reason for Apple’s meteoric rise over the last decade is the iPhone. Realizing that the rise of “cell phones” could harm Apple’s portable iTunes media players (the iPod), Apple teamed with Motorola to create the much derided Rokr E1 phone in 2005. The hardware was disappointing  and users complained that the device could hold just 100 iTunes songs.Two years later, however, Apple introduced its own device. The iPhone was the shocking evolution of iTunes and iPod, and Apple’s work with Motorola. The point is, no iTunes, likely no iPhone and no iPad – the products that currently contribute more than 60% of Apple’s valuation.Yet even the much-improved iTunes 11 still collects scorn, even from the Apple faithful.This represents a misunderstanding of the platform’s roles. At the initial launch of the iPhone, Steve Jobs noted the importance of  iTunes to the “revolutionary” new device:The (iPhone) automatically syncs to your PC or Mac right through iTunes.
 And iTunes is gonna sync all of your media onto your iPhone: Your music, your audio books, podcasts, movies, TV shows, music videos. 
But it also syncs a ton of data: Your contacts, your calendars and your photos, which you can get on your iPod today, your notes, your bookmarks from your Web browser, your email accounts, your whole email set-up. All that stuff can be moved over to your iPhone completely automatically. 
It’s really nice.
 And we do it through iTunes. Again, you go to iTunes and you set it up. Just like you’d set up an iPod or an Apple TV. And you set up what you want synced to your iPhone. And it’s just like an iPod. Charge and sync. So sync with iTunes.Apple Loves iTunes – Even If You Don’tiTunes simultaneously serves as Apple’s payments platform, media library app, and digital media storefront – for music, books, apps, podcasts and video. It powers the popular App Store. It is an app for purchasing content on the iPhone and iPad – though not for playing that content. On the Mac, iTunes is (still) both music and video library management layer, music player – though not video player – payments provider and media storefront.No wonder even long-time Apple users complain of feature bloat and a confusing user interface.Apple’s interactive iTunes timeline, meanwhile, focuses almost exclusively on music. Maybe Apple isn’t ready to accept that iTunes has transformed the company from computer hardware maker to a global digital media concern. But consider these numbers:40 billion apps downloaded25 billion songs sold More than 15,000 songs downloaded every minute1 billion courses downloaded on iTunes UMore than 100 million books on the connected iBookstoreAvailable in more than 115 countries45% of the video on demand market in the U.S.iTunes has also delivered tremendous value to content owners, publishers and app developers. According to Apple analyst Horace Dediu, iTunes generated more than $24 billion in revenues for content owners (media and app developers) in the past five years.No matter what you may think of it personally, iTunes has been essential to Apple’s success. Expect it to continue to pushing the company forward, in all its messy, bloated glory.Images courtesy of Apple. brian s hall The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technologylast_img read more

Becoming More Plant-Centric: A Review of Plant-Based Diets

first_imgAuthor: Christian Maino Vieytes, Masters Candidate, University of IllinoisDr. Ellsworth Wareham lives a comfortable and simple life as a retired cardiothoracic surgeon. He left medical practice 40 years ago when he was 74 years of age. That makes him a fruitful and thriving 104-year-old, today! The question on everyone’s mind, I would imagine, is: how does he do it? How did Dr. Wareham achieve centenarian status? Well, prodding Dr. Wareham with the relevant question prompts a simple response: he attributes his longevity to the adoption of a whole-foods plant based diet over 50 years ago, a common practice within his religious community of the Seventh-Day Adventists. But Dr. Wareham is probably just a genetic outlier, right? Well, let’s take a look at what the science has to say about plant-based diets before we cast judgment.DefinitionWe’ve heard the term, perhaps, thrown around loosely, but what does it actually mean to follow a plant-based diet? Researchers at Harvard have established that a plant-based diet “emphasizes intake of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes” and consists“of a diverse family of dietary patterns, defined in terms of low frequency of consumption of animal foods.” Some describe the diet as completely abstaining from all animal products; an exclusively plant-based diet. The popular Mediterranean Diet, with its focus on these food groups and the minimization of animal products, would certainly fit the definition. Plant-based diets distinguish themselves from vegan diets, which also define themselves by the elimination of all animal products, in that vegans do not necessarily get the majority of their calories from whole plant foods. You can be vegan and eat as many fries (fried in oil) and Oreos as you please but it does not mean it’s healthy!CancerMuch of the beneficial effects of consuming a primarily or exclusively plant-based diet arise from the ratio of fruits/vegetables to products of animal origin. With respect to cancer, several studies have demonstrated that this ratio is highly relevant to one’s risk of developing the disease. Studies on the Mediterranean diet have also established that variations of the diet that maximize fruit and vegetable consumption while minimizing meat and other animal products are associated with a reduced risk of various types of cancer. Specifically, various chemicals found in plants have been found to have protective effects while chemicals that arise in meat and also through the cooking process are responsible for mutations in our DNA that can lead to cancer.Cardiovascular Disease and DiabetesMuch of the benefits of a plant-based diet come from the large amounts of antioxidants, fiber, and whole grains that people on this diet consume relative to the rest of the population. Average fiber intake in the United States for adults is 17 g/day, which is nowhere close to the recommended intake level of ~30 g per day. Those on a plant-based diet may easily consume upwards of 60-80 g per day. Eating primarily high-fiber, whole-plant foods has been shown to effectively promote healthy weight loss by increasing feelings of fullness and lowering the total intake of calories, since fiber has no digestible calories. Fiber is also known for its cholesterol-lowering effects in the blood and its ability to regulate blood-sugar levels. Put all together, these effects provide the basis for why plant-based diets are so effective in treating cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Patients can work with their physicians or dietitians to develop a plan that promotes this pattern of eating.A Sustainable AlternativeAside from the health benefits associated with eating an exclusively plant-based diet, there are also substantial environmental benefits that the planet can profit from by incorporating more fruits and vegetables on our plate. Did you know it requires 2,500 gallons of water to produce one pound of beef? Not only does livestock agriculture guzzle astronomical amounts of this limited resource but the United Nations recognizes it as a leading contributor of greenhouse gas emissions, water contamination, and species extinction.Who knew we could both benefit our bodies and the planet by filling our plate with more fruits and vegetables?BibliographyBarnard, Neal D., et al. “A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial–.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 89.5 (2009): 1588S-1596S.Ford, Brian J. “Impact of cultured meat on global agriculture.” World Agriculture 2.2 (2011): 43-46.Grosso, Giuseppe, et al. “Mediterranean diet and cancer: epidemiological evidence and mechanism of selected aspects.” BMC surgery 13.2 (2013): S14.Jenkins, David JA, et al. “Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 78.3 (2003): 610S-616S.Kapiszewska, Maria. “A vegetable to meat consumption ratio as a relevant factor determining cancer preventive diet.” Local Mediterranean food plants and nutraceuticals. Vol. 59. Karger Publishers, 2006. 130-153.Melina, Vesanto, Winston Craig, and Susan Levin. “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: vegetarian diets.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 116.12 (2016): 1970-1980.Orlich, Michael J., et al. “Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2.” JAMA internal medicine173.13 (2013): 1230-1238.Pevreall, K. (2018, June 13). 102 Year Old Former Surgeon Shares Secret To Avoiding Heart Disease. Retrieved from https://www.livekindly.co/102-former-surgeon-secret-avoiding-heart-disease/Satija, Ambika, and Frank B. Hu. “Plant-based diets and cardiovascular health.” Trends in cardiovascular medicine (2018).Steinfeld, Henning, et al. Livestock’s long shadow: environmental issues and options. UN Food & Agriculture Org., 2006.Yokoyama, Yoko, Susan M. Levin, and Neal D. Barnard. “Association between plant-based diets and plasma lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” Nutrition reviews 75.9 (2017): 683-698.last_img read more

A gathering to remember Dungarpur

first_imgOft-debated topics like corruption in cricket, chucking, umpires’ decision review system (UDRS), money in the game and volume of cricket were once again discussed by some of the best known national captains from across the globe at a RSD World Cricket Summit (WCS) here on Tuesday evening.Former captains Bishan Singh Bedi, Bob Simpson of Australia, South African Ali Bacher and Kapil Dev gave their opinions on an occasion where late Raj Singh Dungarpur (RSD), former president of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), was remembered by the gathering.The most interesting debate was about chucking – a pet subject with Bedi, and he was in his elements while discussing the issue threadbare.”We are not doing anything about chucking; it’s grossly unfair [ to the game],” he lamented as he criticised ace Sri Lankan off-spinner Muttiah Muralitharan and Pakistani speedster Shoaib Akhtar for their bowling actions.Bedi, an illustrious left-arm spinner who had one of the most graceful bowling actions, feels both bowled with questionable actions and most of the time got away with it as rules and ‘ procedure’ (in Akhtar’s case) supported them.However, Bacher didn’t agree with Bedi. “Murali doesn’t chuck,” he declared. “Doesn’t he have a hyper extension in his wrist?” he asked, turning to Bedi. “Mind you, I’m not getting a free ticket to Colombo,” quipped Bacher, drawing laughter from the elite gathering that included legendary Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi and Kapil Dev besides Ajay Jadeja, who also led India in One- Day Internationals.advertisementHowever, Simpson, who played against Bedi in 1970s, jumped to the India captain’s support.Kapil joined forces with Bacher on this issue when the 1983 World Cup- winning captain spoke later. “Paaji [ Bedi] says Muralitharan chucked. But I will never blame him. The authorities should have checked it,” he stressed.Corruption in the game was the other topic that drew the ire of the greats. Bedi was again forceful. “It’s getting out of control,” he declared.Simpson, a close friend of Raj Singh and whom the first- class cricketer once involved as a coach with Mumbai’s Cricket Club of India, said that skippers should be held responsible for what members of their teams do. “It is all in the hands of captains. A captain should answer what’s going on in his team. He should act like a mentor,” he opined.Bacher said that when he held a top post with the United Cricket Board of South Africa, he raised the issue with the International Cricket Council.”There’s a lot of loose talk going on now. I raised this issue at ICC meetings in 1996 and 1999 and told them that there was a lot of loose talk going on. The discussions lasted five or 10 minutes and it was not even minuted,” he disclosed.On the issue of excess money that has come into the game now, all participants agreed that it was distracting players but none of them were jealous of current players earning more than what they did.”My info is that certain players got lot of money. Today, there’s a lot of money in the game and I support it – the best players like Sachin and Lara earn so much and I support that,” said Bacher, who flew down from South Africa especially for the occasion.Simpson cited the example of a young coach in Australia who is earning handsome money.”He has never scored a half- century or taken more than four wickets in an innings. But New South Wales pays him Australian $ 50,000 a year for coaching,” he said.Bedi felt that if the UDRS could help minimise errors, it is welcome. But Simpson, on the basis of ” information” he has received from his ” friends in Australian Channel 9″, had ” some reservation about the Hawk Eye”, which tracks the line and the height of the ball.last_img read more

Atlantic salmon caught in BC waters far north of damaged US fish

first_imgSECHELT, B.C. – A First Nation on British Columbia’s south coast says its members have caught three Atlantic salmon after thousands of the fish escaped from a farm in Washington state.The Shishalh First Nation in Sechelt says its members caught the Atlantic salmon while fishing for pink salmon on Sunday.A news release from the band says the fish weighed between three and 4.5 kilograms, one was male and the two females had developing eggs.Band officials say there’s a high probability all three escaped Aug. 19 when a pen containing 305,000 salmon collapsed in U.S. waters about 150 kilometres to the south at a Cooke Aquaculture fish farm.Fisheries and Oceans Canada has confirmed one Atlantic salmon was caught off southwestern Vancouver Island on Saturday and officials were checking reports that two more of the non-native species were hooked off Sooke and Esquimalt.Sishalh Chief Warren Paull says the First Nation does not support the farming of non-indigenous salmonid species within its territory and the question is not if, but when Atlantic salmon will enter B.C. streams.Concerns have been raised that escaped Atlantic salmon could compete with their Pacific cousins for food, interbreed with them or introduce disease.“We hope this situation can be contained and monitored, and that future decision making around marine finfish aquaculture will be carried out through developing shared and collaborative decision making processes with First Nations,” Paull says in the release.Michael Rust, science adviser with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s aquaculture office, told The Associated Press last week that farmed salmon tend to be domesticated, raised on feed and are not used to catching fish or escaping predators. Farmed salmon are more likely to be prey than predator, he said.On Saturday, Washington state Gov. Jay Inslee directed the Department of Ecology to put any new permits for net pens on hold.The Lummi Nation in northwest Washington state declared a state of emergency last week and directed its members to catch as many of the escaped salmon as possible.The band reports its anglers caught about 20,000 of the fish over the weekend.New Brunswick-based Cooke Aquaculture has said high tides and currents damaged the salmon farm and led to the escape. (The Canadian Press, AP, CFAX)last_img read more


first_imgRyan Reynolds’ Deadpool is one of the many characters the Walt Disney Co. acquired in its landmark deal with 21st Century Fox. (Joe Lederer / Associated Press) Login/Register With: Walt Disney Co. finalized its acquisition of much of 21st Century Fox late Tuesday in a landmark deal that made Mickey Mouse and Bart Simpson corporate cousins.It’s finally official, my favourite Disney characters are Dana Scully and Ellen Ripley! #DisneyFoxDEAL pic.twitter.com/YXwKXf3Lte— Mizuno Takarai (@mizunotakarai) March 20, 2019 LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replyLog in to leave a comment Disney, which had already made high-priced acquisitions of Lucasfilm, Marvel and Pixar, spent a whopping $71.3 billion to add the Fox assets to its library. The giant media takeover included Fox’s movie and TV production studios and the rights to major properties including “Avatar,” “Modern Family” and the “Alien” and “Predator” franchises, among numerous others.Feels like the first day of ‘Pool. pic.twitter.com/QVy8fCxgqr— Ryan Reynolds (@VancityReynolds) March 19, 2019 Advertisement The owner of ESPN and ABC also acquired the FX and National Geographic channels, a controlling stake in streaming service Hulu and Fox’s international television portfolio.Notably, the globally recognized brand also reunited the previously splintered Marvel library. Fox’s “Deadpool,” the “X-Men” and “Fantastic Four” properties are now again owned by the same company that wields the rights to the “Avengers” and the Marvel Cinematic Universe they abide in. Advertisement Advertisement Facebook Twitterlast_img read more