Ebola Drug Made From Tobacco Plant Saves U.S. Aid Workers

first_imgA tiny San Diego-based company provided an experimental Ebola treatment for two Americans infected with the deadly virus in Liberia. The biotechnology drug, produced with tobacco plants, appears to be working.In an unusual twist of expedited drug access, Mapp Biopharmaceutical Inc., which has nine employees, released its experimental ZMapp drug, until now only tested on infected animals, for the two health workers. Kentucky BioProcessing LLC, a subsidiary of tobacco giant Reynolds American Inc. (RAI), manufactures the treatment for Mapp from tobacco plants.The first patient, Kent Brantly, a doctor, was flown from Liberia to Atlanta on Aug. 2, and is receiving treatment at Emory University Hospital. Nancy Writebol, an aid worker, is scheduled to arrive in Atlanta today and will be treated at the same hospital, according to the charity group she works with. Both are improving, according to relatives and supporters.Each patient received at least one dose of ZMapp in Liberia before coming to the U.S., according to Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.“There’s a very scarce number of doses,” and it’s not clear how many each patient needs for treatment, Fauci said. “I’m not sure how many doses they’ll get.”Citing unnamed sources, CNN yesterday reported that the drug used for the treatment is Mapp’s.Ebola, spread through direct contact with body fluids such as blood and urine, has sickened 1,603 people in West Africa, killing 887, according to the World Health Organization. The disease, first reported in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1976, can cause bleeding from the eyes, ears and nose.http://www.bloomberg.com/quicktake/ebola/The virus has historically killed as many as 90 percent of those who contract it. The current outbreak has a fatality rate of about 60 percent, probably because of early treatment efforts, officials have said.There is no cure for Ebola, although several companies — including Mapp — are working on drug candidates that are undergoing animal testing. Normally, patients are given fluids, blood transfusions and antibiotics with the hope their immune systems can fight off Ebola’s onslaught.The two scientists behind Mapp, President Larry Zeitlin and Chief Executive Officer Kevin Whaley, “are both brilliant,” said Charles Arntzen, a plant biotechnology expert at Arizona State University who collaborated with the two researchers years ago. “They are very, very bright guys and free spirits.”The antibody work came out of research projects funded more than a decade ago by the U.S. Army to develop treatments and vaccines against potential bio-warfare agents, such as the Ebola virus, Arntzen said in a telephone interview.Tobacco PlantThe tobacco plant production system was developed because it was a method that could produce antibodies rapidly in the event of an emergency, he said.To produce therapeutic proteins inside a tobacco plant, genes for the desired antibodies are fused to genes for a natural tobacco virus, said Arntzen. The tobacco plants are then infected with this new artificial virus, he said.“The infection results in the production of antibodies inside the plant,” Arntzen said. The plant is eventually ground up and the antibody is extracted, he said. The whole process takes a matter of weeks.When confronted by reporters about the Ebola infections in Liberia and subsequent treatments, Whaley said he needed to get up to speed on the developing events.“This is all new to me,” said Whaley, who was dressed in shorts, a well-worn T-shirt and flip-flops while addressing reporters’ questions outside the company’s offices in a San Diego business park. “I just don’t want to give out any inaccurate information, that’s all.”Antibody CocktailMapp’s drug is being developed with Toronto-based Defyrus Inc., which has six employees, according to Defyrus CEO Jeff Turner. ZMapp is a “cocktail” of monoclonal antibodies that help the immune system attack the virus.Monoclonal antibodies designed to fight and block specific proteins can stop the virus from latching onto and entering cells, said Heinz Feldmann, chief of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases’ Laboratory of Virology in Hamilton, Montana.The key is to find antibodies that can prevent viral infection, and to attack several points on the virus so that mutants won’t “escape” treatment, he said.“What you want is a cocktail of antibodies that target different domains on the virus so escape is less likely in treatment,” he said in a telephone interview. Feldmann said he hasn’t been involved in developing treatments.ZMapp’s predecessor, MB-003, protected three of seven rhesus macaques in a study run in 2013 by Mapp and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.Ethical QuestionsEbola and virology experts believe the use of the Mapp drug for Brantly and Writebol is unusual in the annals of emergency drug treatments. While potentially saving lives, the cases raise questions about who should have the right to receive experimental drugs years before they gain FDA approval.“There are a lot of Africans that are also dying,” Robert Garry, a virologist at Tulane University, said in a telephone interview. “If we are going to do it for the Americans then we should certainly step up our game for the Africans.”Although no drugs to treat Ebola are approved by U.S. regulators, the Food and Drug Administration can approve an emergency application to provide access to unapproved drugs, Stephanie Yao, an FDA spokeswoman, said in an e-mail.Emergency ApprovalApproval for emergency drug use outside of a clinical trial can be made within 24 hours, Yao wrote. Shipment and treatment with the drug could begin even before completed written forms are submitted to the FDA, which can approve the use of an experimental treatment by telephone in an emergency.“The FDA stands ready to work with companies and investigators treating these patients who are in dire need of treatment,” Yao said. She declined to say whether the FDA had allowed any drug to be used in the Ebola outbreak.Erica Ollmann Saphire, a molecular biologist at the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, worked with Mapp and the other biotechnology companies to develop models of the Ebola virus and potential antibodies.She directs a global consortium given the job of modeling the virus and the mixture of antibodies needed to defeat it. She said the drug was approved for the two American medical workers in Liberia under a compassionate-use doctrine, because it’s not even scheduled for clinical trials until next year.Informed Consent“I’d take it myself,” she said in an interview in her laboratory, near La Jolla. “Absolutely. I wouldn’t think twice.”She said the American medical aid workers were in a better position to give consent to the treatment than African disease victims.“Do you put an untested therapy in a human or do you just watch them die?” Saphire asked. “Certainly these two Americans are medically trained individuals who knew what they were getting into. They are able to give informed consent.”Medical care of the two U.S. citizens may take two to three weeks if all goes well, Bruce Ribner, an infectious disease specialist at Emory, said in an Aug. 1 news conference.The Atlanta-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which confirmed that Brantly and Writebol are the first Ebola patients on U.S. soil, is working with the hospital and transport company to make sure evacuation of the two patients goes safely, said Barbara Reynolds, an agency spokeswoman.“We’re here to make sure the transportation process and the care here in the U.S. ensures there’s no spread,” Reynolds said. “It’s important to remember this is not an airborne virus, it requires close contact with body fluids. It’s minimal risk as long as the people caring for the patient use meticulous procedures.”To contact the reporters on this story: Robert Langreth in New York at rlangreth@bloomberg.net; Caroline Chen in New York at cchen509@bloomberg.net; John Lauerman in Boston at jlauerman@bloomberg.netShare this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Andy Quamie and the County Meet’s Success

first_imgDeputy Sports Minister and head of the National County Sports Meet organizing committee, Andy Quamie, at the Samuel Kanyon Doe Sports ComplexDeputy Minister for Sports G. Andy Quamie is no stranger to what is strange. Quamie, as those who know him will tell you, is a workaholic.He is a man who believes that negative changes and attitudes towards sports and others could be better if the media can help the Ministry of Youth & Sports to drum the information into the ears of the Liberian people.Few days before the just ended national county meet began, Minister Quamie, at a meeting with the sports media, insisted that, for example, while in other countries whenever a game is over, fans would right away decide to return home, in Liberia, whenever a game is over, the fans would jump over the fence onto the playing pitch. And this is against CAF and FIFA rule of safety.That action, he said, could cost Liberia dearly, and therefore he wanted the media to help inform fans against that practice. Hearing Minister Quamie speak on that issue, exposed his greatest passion for Liberian fans to change their negative attitudes towards the game.With optimism, Quamie said: “Things can get better if the media can help Liberians help their country.”Then the events of the 2018/19 soccer and kickball and later soccer meet began in the leeward counties as Andy and his team, including Minister D. Zeogar Wilson and others, jumped into action.Quamie, a FIFA and CAF Match Commissioner, did not leave the job for others to do. He did it and worked along with others at the ministry to get the job done and, in the end, success crowned the effort.In his official message to the followers of the county meet, Quamie said: “We may have made some mistakes, stepped on few toes during the discharge of our duties; we say sorry, and hope to improve as we go into the future. Together we can make LIBERIA great again.”Don’t you love this man? A very honest man, he realized that all may not have been done as anticipated and therefore he has set the agenda for the future of the County Meet.What prompted this article was when someone criticized the County Meet for being only soccer and kickball oriented, without basketball, track and field and other sports. I realized that the individual did not realize that every competition has a budget ceiling. And in a country that is “broke,” as observed by the President of Liberia as he took the helm of national leadership, prudence made it necessary for the government to use its limited resources wisely.Of course, there are critics that would not understand what I just explained and, therefore, using direct response to their accusations is a waste of time and the world will continue to move on anyway!As far as Andy Quamie is concerned, the success of the recent county meet was because of Liberians’ massive support to the County Sports Meet.“We are open to suggestions, recommendations, and advice in improving our biggest sporting event. We wish to express our warmest appreciation to our sponsors, partners, and the Government of Liberia for all the support,” Quamie said. That the organizers are prepared to receive suggestions that could improve on the future of the game is commendable.In any account, Orange Liberia’s support to the recent County Meet is without compare. As we await a future tournament of such proportion, may all of us realize that playing our respective roles well can mean the difference between failure and success.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Rep. Yekeh Kolubah Threatened with Expulsion From House of Representatives

first_imgMontserrado County District #10 Rep. Yekeh Kolubah threatened expulsion from the House of Representatives for his utterances. – Advertisement – — Rep. Fallah disclosesTough talking and controversial District# 10 Representative Yekeh Kolubah has been threatened with expulsion from the House of Representatives if he does not , within three months, retract and apologize for remarks he allegedly made about unseating the government of President Weah.According to Montserrado County District#5 Representative Thomas Fallah if Rep. Kolubah does not desist from consistently and continuously bringing the House of Representatives into ‘disrepute’ with his ‘reckless and insulting comments’ he will either be suspended if he is lucky, or expelled based on Rule 40 of the House’s Rules and Procedures.Rep. Fallah said majority members of the House, at least 49 members, in accordance to the House’s Rules and Procedures, will either suspend or expel Rep. Kolubah for ‘bad conduct and undesirable acts.’“I want to use this time to urge my colleague and my nephew (that’s how we call one another in Lofa), Rep. Kolubah, to desist from raining insults and bringing the Honorable House of Representatives [into disrepute] and, if he does not desist and continues as of this (Tuesday) evening or tonight, if he is lucky he will be suspended and, when bad-lucky, he will be expelled,” he said.Rep. Fallah further urged Rep. Kolubah to limit his advocacy on policy issues, including the economy, health and other basic social issues, but not make unsubstantial issues and rain insults, which will cast a dark cloud on the Legislature and the government.But legal experts here, commenting on Representative Fallah’s remarks,  have scoffed the idea of having Yekeh expelled from the body on account of statements he has allegedly made against the President. They maintain that threats to have Yekeh expelled if actualized could provoke a constitutional crises with implications for peace and stability in Liberia.They further noted that such threats are intended to institutionalize the criminalization of free speech and expression s guaranteed under Article 15 of the Constitution.Article 15 of the Constitution provides the following: a) Every person shall have the right to freedom of expression, being fully responsible for the abuse thereof. This right shall not be curtailed, restricted or enjoined by government save during an emergency declared in accordance with this Constitution.b) The right encompasses the right to hold opinions without interference and the right to knowledge. It includes freedom of speech and of the press, academic freedom to receive and impart knowledge and information and the right of libraries to make such knowledge available. It includes non-interference with the use of the mail, telephone and telegraph. It likewise includes the right to remain silent.c) In pursuance of this right, there shall be no limitation on the public right to be informed about the government and its functionaries.d) Access to state owned media shall not be denied because of any disagreement with or dislike of the ideas express. Denial of such access may be challenged in a court of competent jurisdiction.e) This freedom may be limited only by judicial action in proceedings grounded in defamation or invasion of the rights of privacy and publicity or in the commercial aspect of expression in deception, false advertising and copyright infringement.Moreover, according to a leading legal practitioner(name withheld) , Article 42 of the Constitution of Liberia provides that “No member of the Senate or House of Representatives shall be arrested, detained, prosecuted or tried as a result of opinions expressed or votes cast in the exercise of the functions of his office”.Article 42 further provides that “Members shall be privileged from arrest while attending, going to or returning from sessions of the Legislature, except for treason, felony or breach of the peace. All official acts done or performed and all statement made in the Chambers of the Legislature shall be privileged, and no Legislator shall be held accountable or punished therefor”.The legal practitioner questioned whether  or not Yekeh is being threatened with contempt of the Legislature. And in case he is, according to the lawyer, Article 44 of the  Constitution of Liberia specifically provides that  “Contempt of the Legislature shall consist of actions which obstruct the legislative functions or which obstruct or impede members or officers of the Legislature in the discharge of their legislative duties and may be punished by the House concerned by reasonable sanctions after a hearing consistent with due process of law”.Article 44 further provides that “No sanctions shall extend beyond the session of the Legislature wherein it is imposed, and any sanction imposed shall conform to the provisions on Fundamental Rights laid down in the Constitution”.According to the lawyer the last part of Article 44 has to do with disputes between legislators and non-members which, according to the Constitution, shall not be entertained or heard in the Legislature if such disputes are properly cognizable before the courts. But more to that, according to the lawyer, under Article 20 of the Constitution Yekeh cannot be deprived of his privilege as a legislator “except as the outcome of a hearing judgment consistent with the provisions laid down in the Constitution and in accordance with due process of law”.The lawyer in closing said gone are the days when an elected member of the House could be expelled at the whims of the Executive under the cover of what was at the time referred to as a Joint Resolution (JR). He observed that during TWP rule a former legislator, at the time from Grand Gedeh County, Chea Cheapoo was expelled from the House because he had run afoul of the True Whig Party elites who dominated local politics, according to the lawyer.Meanwhile it remains to be seen whether  Representative Fallah can indeed make good on his threats which may, more likely than not, prove untenable.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Huskies pickup another win in Sexsmith

first_imgThe Huskies remain in first place in the NWJHL, only one point ahead of the Dawson Creek Junior Canucks but the played four more games than the Huskies.The Junior Canucks are in Grande Prairie tonight in one of three games around the NWJHL.  The Fairview Flyers travel to Peace River, and the Beaverlodge Blades are in Sexsmith. SEXSMITH, A.B. – The Fort St. John Huskies continue to dominate in the NWJHL.Friday night the Pups travelled to Sexsmith to take on the Vipers and came away with a decisive 7-1 win.Gary Loewen started the scoring only 20 seconds into the first period followed by goals from Nolan Legace and Teagan McMullen.- Advertisement -In the second, Nolan Legace scored another goal making it 4-0 for the Huskies.  On the powerplay, the Vipers scored their only goal with one from Joel Demarcke.The Huskies then answered back with a goal of their own on the powerplay from Jared Loewen.In the third period, Nolan Legace scored his third goal of the night with Alex Hartman scoring the seventh goal.Advertisementlast_img read more

Aboriginal Gathering place opens at NLC Campus in Fort Nelson

first_imgAboriginal students at Northern Lights College have a new space to study and honour their heritage with the official opening of the new gathering place today, announced Moira Stilwell, Minister of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development.The Province has invested $263,513 in the new gathering place at NLC’s Fort Nelson campus. The new gathering place features artwork and cultural artefacts commissioned by local Aboriginal bands, as well as a fireplace and study areas decorated using textures and colours that evoke the four elements – fire, water, earth and wind.Since the Fort Nelson campus opened more than 30 years ago, the number of Aboriginal students attending has steadily increased, with over 200 enrolled in 2008-09. NLC has promoted their personal and professional success as they pursue their post-secondary education.- Advertisement -Aboriginal gathering places are designed to enhance support services for the growing number of Aboriginal students on campuses all over B.C.  The gathering places promote and preserve Aboriginal culture and history and are a resource for the community and students.The Province is investing $13.2 million to create gathering places that reflect Aboriginal culture at our public, post-secondary institutions.  In addition to the gathering place at its Fort Nelson campus, Northern Lights also has plans underway to build gathering places at its Fort St. John, Dawson Creek and Chetwynd campuses.last_img read more


first_imgA Lifford barber trimmed his ESB bill after having an illegal device fitted to his house.Brian Gallagher fitted the device at his home after he was told about it by a customer.Gallagher, of Ard Glass, Lifford, had the device fitted for three months which disguised the reading on his outside meter at his home. The matter was only discovered when an ESB employee called to the house and found the device.Solicitor Ciaran Liddy said the ESB did not come to court to recover the revenue lost but to warn people about the dangers of such devices.Mr Liddy told Letterkenny District Court the device had been fitted by a company from Northern Ireland and had been operated between 1st July and September 6th, 2010.“The ESB’s overriding concern is one of safety and they want to put out that this is extremely dangerous as the full flow of electricity enters the house at this point where the device was fitted,” he said.Solicitor for the accused Frank Dorrian said Gallagher bought the device after an innocent conversation while cutting someone’s hair.“It was a fairly innocuous conversation and he was not aware of the hazard this device caused,” he said.However Judge Paul Kelly said this was a very serious matter and he knew of injury and even loss of life from installing such devices.It is very appropriate that the ESB has brought these proceedings to show people what can be a dangerous part of everyday life.“Luckily for him he was not involved in the mechanics of fitting this device but Mr Gallagher knew it was wrong to put in this device to reduce his bill,” he said.Judge Kelly fined Gallagher €350 under the Energy Act 1995.BARBER GETS CHOP FOR TRIMMING HIS ESB BILL WITH DEVICE was last modified: December 5th, 2011 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:barberBrian GallagherdeviceESBJudge Paul Kellylast_img read more


first_imgNotice: St Eunan’s GAA Club All-Ireland Final Ticket Collection:Adults who have applied for a ticket for this year’s All-Ireland Football Finals double-header in Croke Park tomorrow week, can call to the Clubhouse tomorrow, Sunday September 14th at 4pm to collect their ticket (upstairs).All Juveniles that were successful is acquiring a ticket will be notified by today and their tickets can also be collected as well. …….For those that have requested Hill 16 / Nally Stand tickets, your tickets will be available to collect DOWNSTAIRS in the Clubhouse.Please note that you must bring full payment with you for your ticket(s) to receive your ticket(s).We are also asking people that have not applied for a ticket NOT to show up at the Clubhouse as it is expected to be very busy and we already have a standby list for tickets. Advertisement  GAA NEWS: ST EUNAN’S ANNOUNCE ALL-IRELAND FINAL TICKET COLLECTION DETAILS was last modified: September 13th, 2014 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Non-League round-up: Hayes & Yeading on the brink

first_imgThe penultimate weekend of the season looms for all of our local sides and for some it could decide which division they end up playing in next year.Defeat to Mansfield Town at Kingfield in their last match has left Hayes & Yeading United needing to win at Lincoln City on Saturday if they are to have any chance of avoiding relegation from the Blue Square Bet Premier.It looks like a big ask though as the Imps, who include former Hayes and QPR striker Richard Pacquette in their squad, recently beat Nas Bashir’s side in the reverse fixture and held league champions Fleetwood Town to a 2-2 draw last time out.Even if they do win, it may not be enough as the gap between themselves and Newport County is six points, meaning a draw for the Welsh club at home to Alfreton Town will be enough to keep them up and send Hayes down.If they do end up in the Blue Square Bet South next season, one side hoping to play them will be local rivals Hampton & Richmond Borough.However, the chances of this happening have diminished over the last week as the Beavers have slipped to defeats against Eastbourne Borough and Salisbury City.The results have left in them in the bottom three, two points adrift of Havant & Waterlooville but with a crucial game in hand.Saturday’s game at the Beveree against Welling United pits them against one of the better teams in the division who have already confirmed their place in the play-offs with two games still to go.The Wings’ record against Hampton is decent having not lost in their last six meetings. Their overall league form though is a little more patchy having only won two of their last five, so there is hope for the hosts.In the Ryman Premier it has been an excellent week for Wealdstone, who edged 2-1 past title challengers AFC Hornchurch at Grosvenor Vale before travelling to already relegated Tooting & Mitcham United on Tuesday and thrashing them 6-0.The two wins have lifted them to sixth – just one point off the play-off places with a game in hand on Lewes, who they need to catch.Saturday’s match at Metropolitan Police appears on paper to be a fairly routine one. Although their hosts were league leaders at one point, their form has drifted away and four defeats in their previous five games has left them in 11th.With the three teams immediately below them all within a win of catching up there will be no room for complacency.One of those team’s are Gary McCann’s Hendon who have also enjoyed a fruitful few days.A 2-1 win over Kingstonian at Vale Farm on Saturday kept their promotion hopes alive and boosted them ahead of Wednesday night’s meeting with the same team in the London Senior Cup final at Metropolitan Police’s Imber Court ground.Goals from Darren Currie and Jack Mazzone saw the Greens win 2-0 as they won the trophy for the fourth time in their history.On Saturday they play host to Tooting & Mitcham and will hope to try and replicate Wealdstone’s midweek performance over the demoralised south London club.In fact, anything less than a win will leave them with a mountain to climb especially if Lewes triumph – a defeat for Hendon in this scenario will end their promotion ambitions.Another club facing a big weekend are Harrow Borough. After the highs of making the play-offs last season, Boro have returned to a sadly rather more familiar relegation dogfight.A win over fellow strugglers Hastings United last weekend would have pretty much secured safety but somehow they managed to lose 3-1 to a team who hadn’t won in five and got sucked right back into the mire.Dave Anderson’s team currently sit three points and two places above the relegation zone so appear to have a fighting chance. However, their run-in is challenging and it begins with a home match against AFC Hornchurch.If fellow strugglers Leatherhead lose at home to Kingstonian on Saturday, Boro will only need to draw this match to stay up and they managed to do that the last time the sides met in January. Whatever happens, it is sure to be a tense afternoon at Earlsmead.All Premier League and Football League season-ticket holders get in for half price at all our local non-league clubs’ home league games. Check their websites for details.Advertising on West London SportFollow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebooklast_img read more

TV channels for local languages

first_imgThemba GadebeThe Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (Icasa) has granted the SABC, the country’s public broadcaster, licences for two regional television stations to be broadcast in indigenous languages.However, the stations – to be known as SABC4 and SABC5 – will only be launched once the public broadcaster has adequate funding to survive at least one licence term.The SABC currently has three national stations – SABC1, 2 and 3 – while SABC Africa, broadcasts across the continent. The predominant language on all four is English.SABC4 will cater for Setswana, Sesotho, Sepedi, Tshivenda, Xitsonga and Afrikaans, and SABC5 for isiZulu, isiXhosa, Siswati and Afrikaans.SABC4 will be broadcast in the provinces of Limpopo, North West, Gauteng, Free State and Northern Cape, and SABC5 in Mpumalanga, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, the Eastern Cape, the Western Cape and the eastern border of Limpopo.Icasa chairperson Mandla Langa said English would not be broadcast on the new channels. “This doesn’t mean English will be totally prohibited,” Langa said. “It may still be used in, for example, news and current affairs shows.“Even taking into account our recently imposed language obligations on SABC1 and 2, English will still be the predominant language on those channels.”‘Challenge now to secure funding’“Now that the licenses have been granted, the challenge is to secure funding,” SABC spokesperson Paul Setsetse said. “Once that is in place, it will take a minimum of 18 months before the rollout of the transmitter network.“Although the SABC does not expect that the channels will attract significant commercial revenues, we are nonetheless pleased that Icasa has decided to allow the channels to carry advertising,” Setsetse added.“We believe these advertising revenues will assist in funding the channels, although it must be noted that for the vast majority of their funding requirements, the regional channels will still be dependent on public grants.”The public broadcaster has, however, raised concern as to how it will be possible to run television channels without commissioning programming in English.“We will need to evaluate how it will impact on the programme and schedule strategies of the channels, particularly the use of multilingual programmes using English,” Setsetse said.Source: SouthAfrica.infolast_img read more